EgA31 is a fibrillar protein from Echinococcus granulosus that behaves as a potent antigen during infestation of dogs. The localization of this antigen during development of the parasite was investigated by immunohistochemistry in optical and electron microscopy. The protein is mostly abundant in the microtriches and subtegumental cells of the adult, whereas it is absent from protoscolex microtriches. Eggs, the periphery of calcareous corpuscles, and the germinal layer were other sites of accumulation. Immunogenicity of different domains of the protein was assessed during experimental infection of dogs. It was shown that the polypeptide encoded by the Pst I-Hind III fragment of the complete cDNA is the most antigenic during the infection. The uses of such polypeptide for infection diagnosis and as a candidate vaccine protein are discussed.