The expression of glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P) is markedly up-regulated in the initial phase of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. It is unlikely that a specific genetic change is associated with this common response to a variety of carcinogens. Here, we describe how GST-P gene expression is induced by carcinogenic treatment, focusing on the changes in the network of liver-enriched transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins. Although the balance of positive and negative transcription factors regulates the expression of the GST-P gene, additional factors such as the altered regulation of growth control may certainly be necessary for these cells to develop into preneoplastic foci. Furthermore, our genetic analyses on the tumor susceptibility of (F344 x DRH)F2 rats support the hypothesis that the formation of GST-P-positive lesions is required but is not directly associated with final malignant transformation.
Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.