Mechanisms of DNA double strand break repair and chromosome aberration formation

Cytogenet Genome Res. 2004;104(1-4):14-20. doi: 10.1159/000077461.

Abstract

It is widely accepted that unrepaired or misrepaired DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) lead to the formation of chromosome aberrations. DSBs induced in the DNA of higher eukaryotes by endogenous processes or exogenous agents can in principle be repaired either by non-homologous endjoining (NHEJ), or homology directed repair (HDR). The basis on which the selection of the DSB repair pathway is made remains unknown but may depend on the inducing agent, or process. Evaluation of the relative contribution of NHEJ and HDR specifically to the repair of ionizing radiation (IR) induced DSBs is important for our understanding of the mechanisms leading to chromosome aberration formation. Here, we review recent work from our laboratories contributing to this line of inquiry. Analysis of DSB rejoining in irradiated cells using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis reveals a fast component operating with half times of 10-30 min. This component of DSB rejoining is severely compromised in cells with mutations in DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA ligase IV, or XRCC4, as well as after chemical inhibition of DNA-PK, indicating that it reflects classical NHEJ; we termed this form of DSB rejoining D-NHEJ to signify its dependence on DNA-PK. Although chemical inhibition, or mutation, in any of these factors delays processing, cells ultimately remove the majority of DSBs using an alternative pathway operating with slower kinetics (half time 2-10 h). This alternative, slow pathway of DSB rejoining remains unaffected in mutants deficient in several genes of the RAD52 epistasis group, suggesting that it may not reflect HDR. We proposed that it reflects an alternative form of NHEJ that operates as a backup (B-NHEJ) to the DNA-PK-dependent (D-NHEJ) pathway. Biochemical studies confirm the presence in cell extracts of DNA end joining activities operating in the absence of DNA-PK and indicate the dominant role for D-NHEJ, when active. These observations in aggregate suggest that NHEJ, operating via two complementary pathways, B-NHEJ and D-NHEJ, is the main mechanism through which IR-induced DSBs are removed from the DNA of higher eukaryotes. HDR is considered to either act on a small fraction of IR induced DSBs, or to engage in the repair process at a step after the initial end joining. We propose that high speed D-NHEJ is an evolutionary development in higher eukaryotes orchestrated around the newly evolved DNA-PKcs and pre-existing factors. It achieves within a few minutes restoration of chromosome integrity through an optimized synapsis mechanism operating by a sequence of protein-protein interactions in the context of chromatin and the nuclear matrix. As a consequence D-NHEJ mostly joins the correct DNA ends and suppresses the formation of chromosome aberrations, albeit, without ensuring restoration of DNA sequence around the break. B-NHEJ is likely to be an evolutionarily older pathway with less optimized synapsis mechanisms that rejoins DNA ends with kinetics of several hours. The slow kinetics and suboptimal synapsis mechanisms of B-NHEJ allow more time for exchanges through the joining of incorrect ends and cause the formation of chromosome aberrations in wild type and D-NHEJ mutant cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Androstadienes / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Avian Proteins
  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • B-Lymphocytes / radiation effects
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Line, Tumor / metabolism
  • Cell Line, Tumor / radiation effects
  • Chickens
  • Chromosome Aberrations*
  • DNA / genetics*
  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA / radiation effects
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA Helicases / metabolism
  • DNA Ligase ATP
  • DNA Ligases / metabolism
  • DNA Repair / drug effects
  • DNA Repair / physiology*
  • DNA-Activated Protein Kinase
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Eukaryotic Cells / metabolism*
  • Eukaryotic Cells / radiation effects
  • Glioblastoma / pathology
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Ku Autoantigen
  • Models, Genetic
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Rad51 Recombinase
  • Rad52 DNA Repair and Recombination Protein
  • Wortmannin

Substances

  • Androstadienes
  • Avian Proteins
  • CIB1 protein, human
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • LIG4 protein, human
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • RAD52 protein, human
  • Rad52 DNA Repair and Recombination Protein
  • DNA
  • DNA-Activated Protein Kinase
  • PRKDC protein, human
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • RAD51 protein, Gallus gallus
  • RAD51 protein, human
  • Rad51 Recombinase
  • DNA Helicases
  • XRCC5 protein, human
  • Ku Autoantigen
  • DNA Ligases
  • DNA Ligase ATP
  • Wortmannin