Management of intraocular retinoblastoma and ocular prognosis

Int J Clin Oncol. 2004 Feb;9(1):1-6. doi: 10.1007/s10147-003-0366-0.


Current management modalities for intraocular retinoblastoma, their indications, and ocular prognosis are reviewed. Enucleation, external beam radiotherapy, plaque radiotherapy, laser photocoagulation and hyperthermia, and cryotherapy are the modalities generally employed. Recently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been introduced for retinoblastoma to avoid external beam radiotherapy. New treatment modalities such as subconjunctival injection, selective ophthalmic artery injection, and vitreous injection are being investigated and have achieved favorable results. Although many modalities are employed, almost half of retinoblastoma eyes have to be enucleated. New treatment modalities are expected.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Management
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Retinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Retinal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Retinoblastoma / diagnosis*
  • Retinoblastoma / pathology
  • Retinoblastoma / therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome