The subcellular localization of the ChoRE-binding protein, encoded by the Williams-Beuren syndrome critical region gene 14, is regulated by 14-3-3

Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Jul 15;13(14):1505-14. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddh163. Epub 2004 May 26.


The Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a contiguous gene syndrome caused by chromosomal rearrangements at chromosome band 7q11.23. Several endocrine phenotypes, in particular impaired glucose tolerance and silent diabetes, have been described for this clinically complex disorder. The WBSCR14 gene, one of the genes mapping to the WBS critical region, encodes a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family of transcription factors, which dimerizes with the Max-like protein, Mlx. This heterodimeric complex binds and activates, in a glucose-dependent manner, carbohydrate response element (ChoRE) motifs in the promoter of lipogenic enzymes. We identified five novel WBSCR14-interacting proteins, four 14-3-3 isotypes and NIF3L1, which form a single polypeptide complex in mammalian cells. Phosphatase treatment abrogates the association between WBSCR14 and 14-3-3, as shown previously for multiple 14-3-3 interactors. WBSCR14 is exported actively from the nucleus through a CRM1-dependent mechanism. This translocation is contingent upon the ability to bind 14-3-3. Through this mechanism the 14-3-3 isotypes directly affect the WBSCR14:Mlx complexes, which activate the transcription of lipogenic genes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins / genetics
  • 14-3-3 Proteins / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7
  • Co-Repressor Proteins
  • Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs
  • Humans
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Response Elements
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • Williams Syndrome / genetics*


  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Co-Repressor Proteins
  • MLXIP protein, human
  • MLXIPL protein, human
  • NIF3L1 protein, human
  • Proteins
  • Transcription Factors