Moving towards individualized medicine with pharmacogenomics

Nature. 2004 May 27;429(6990):464-8. doi: 10.1038/nature02626.


Individuals respond differently to drugs and sometimes the effects are unpredictable. Differences in DNA that alter the expression or function of proteins that are targeted by drugs can contribute significantly to variation in the responses of individuals. Many of the genes examined in early studies were linked to highly penetrant, single-gene traits, but future advances hinge on the more difficult challenge of elucidating multi-gene determinants of drug response. This intersection of genomics and medicine has the potential to yield a new set of molecular diagnostic tools that can be used to individualize and optimize drug therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Drug Design
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Genomics / trends*
  • Humans
  • Medicine / trends*
  • Pharmacogenetics / trends*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics