Dopaminergic agents, particularly dopamine agonists, have been used with increasing frequency in the treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. These evidence-based practice parameters are complementary to the Practice Parameters for the Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder, published in 1999. These practice parameters were developed by the Standards of Practice Committee and reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Recommendations are based on the accompanying comprehensive review of the medical literature regarding the dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), which was developed by a task force commissioned by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The following recommendations serve as a guide to the appropriate use of dopaminergic agents in the treatment of RLS and PLMD. Levodopa with decarboxylase inhibitor, and the dopaminergic agonists pergolide, pramipexole, and ropinirole are effective in the treatment of RLS and PLMD. Other dopamine agonists (talipexole, cabergoline, piribidel, and alpha-dihydroergocryptine) and the dopaminergic agents amantadine and selegiline may be effective in the treatment of RLS and PLMD, but the level of effectiveness of these medications is not currently established. Lastly, no specific recommendations can be made regarding dopaminergic treatment of children or pregnant women with RLS or PLMD.