DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are presumed to be the most deleterious DNA lesions as they disrupt both DNA strands. Homologous recombination (HR), single-strand annealing, and non-homologous end-joining are considered to be the pathways for repairing DSB. In this review, we focus on DSB repair by HR. The proteins involved in this process as well as the interactions among them are summarized and characterized. The main emphasis is on eukaryotic cells, particularly the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammals. Only the RAD52 epistasis group proteins are included.