Postembryonic development of plant organs requires a constant interplay between the cell cycle and the developmental programs. Upon endo- and exogenous signals, plant cells can enter, exit or modify the cell cycle. Alteration of mitotic cycles to endoreduplication cycles, where the genome is duplicated without mitosis, is common in plants and may play a role in cell differentiation. The switch from the mitotic to endocycles is regulated by Ccs52A, a plant orthologue of the yeast and animal Cdhl proteins, acting as substrate-specific activator of the anaphase-promoting complex E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here, several aspects of endoreduplication are discussed with special attention on nitrogen-fixing nodule development where endoreduplication is an integral part of symbiotic cell differentiation.