We performed a population study on 15 polymorphic STR loci (FH2010, FH2079, PEZ2, VWF.X, FH2054, FH2087Ub, FH2611, WILMS-TF, PEZ12, PEZ15, PEZ6, FH2087Ua, ZUBECA4, ZUBECA6, FH2132) on 131 randomly selected dogs. Alleles were identified and grouped according to their estimated fragment length using fixed allelic bins encompassing one base-pair. The allele assignment was confirmed by sequence analysis of homozygote and cloned heterozygote alleles. In order to develop a uniform repeat-based nomenclature, extensive sequence analysis was performed on a selection of alleles from each STR locus. The proposed nomenclature refers to the internationally recognised recommendations for human-specific STR loci in forensic applications. The 15 canine-specific STR loci were grouped into 3 classes (simple STRs, compound STRs and complex/hypervariable STRs) according to their complexity and variability within the repeat structure. Finally, we evaluated the precision of fragment size estimation on a capillary electrophoresis platform and demonstrated reproducibility of fragment length estimation for single base-pair intermediate alleles.