Ionizing or ultraviolet radiation-induced cellular survival signaling pathways induce development of cancer and insensitivity of tumor cells to radiation therapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signal pathway is a major contributor to radioresistance. In many cell types PI3K/AKT signaling is a key cytoprotective response downstream of the EGFR family receptors and mediated carcinogenesis. Cytokines, such as HGF, IGF-I, and IL-6 also protects cells against apoptosis induced by radiation through PI3K/AKT pathway. The mechanics by which PI3K/AKT signaling functions in radiation responses may include its regulation of mitochondrial proteins, transcription factors, translation machinery, and cell-cycle progression. In addition, cross-talk between the PI3K/AKT pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C signal pathway may also play an important role.