Characterization of circadian-associated APRR3 pseudo-response regulator belonging to the APRR1/TOC1 quintet in Arabidopsis thaliana

Plant Cell Physiol. 2004 May;45(5):645-50. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pch065.


In higher plants, there are wide ranges of biological processes that are controlled through the circadian clock. In this connection, we have been characterizing a small family of proteins, designated as ARABIDOPSIS PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORS (APRR1, APRR3, APRR5, APRR7, and APRR9), among which APRR1 is identical to TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1) that is believed to be a component of the central oscillator. Through previous genetic studies, several lines of evidence have already been provided to support the view that, not only APRR1/TOC1, but also other APRR1/TOC1 quintet members are important for a better understanding of the molecular links between circadian rhythm, control of flowering time, and also photomorphogenesis. However, the least characterized one was APRR3 in that no genetic study has been conducted to see if APRR3 also plays an important role in the circadian-associated biological events. Here we show that APRR3-overexpressing transgenic plants (APRR3-ox) exhibited: (i). a phenotype of longer period (and/or delayed phase) of rhythms of certain circadian-controlled genes under continuous white light, (ii). a phenotype of late flowering under long-day photoperiod conditions, (iii). a phenotype of hypo-sensitiveness to red light during early photomorphogenesis of de-etiolated seedlings, supporting the current idea as to the APRR1/TOC1 quintet described above.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis / radiation effects
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Biological Clocks / genetics*
  • Biological Clocks / radiation effects
  • Circadian Rhythm / genetics*
  • Circadian Rhythm / radiation effects
  • Flowers / growth & development
  • Flowers / radiation effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / radiation effects
  • Light
  • Phenotype
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Photoperiod
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / genetics
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / metabolism
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / radiation effects
  • Seedlings / growth & development
  • Seedlings / radiation effects
  • Transcription Factors


  • APRR3 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • TOC1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Transcription Factors