The Orientation of trabecular bone specimens for mechanical testing must be carefully controlled. A method for accurately preparing on-axis cylindrical specimens using high-resolution micro-CT imaging was developed. Sixteen cylindrical specimens were prepared from eight bovine tibiae. High-resolution finite element models were generated from micro-CT images of parallelepipeds and used to determine the principal material coordinate system of each parallelepiped. A cylindrical specimen was then machined with a diamond coring bit. The resulting specimens were scanned again to evaluate the orientation. The average deviation between the principal fabric orientation and the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical specimen was only 4.70 +/- 3.11 degrees.