Hemiplegic gait: a kinematic analysis using walking speed as a basis

J Biomech. 1992 Sep;25(9):1007-15. doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(92)90036-z.

Abstract

The kinematics of treadmill ambulation of stroke patients (N = 9) and healthy subjects (N = 4) was studied at a wide range of different velocities (i.e. 0.25-1.5 m s-1), with a focus on the transverse rotations of the trunk. Video recordings revealed, for both stroke patients and healthy subjects, similar relations between walking speed and stride length as well as stride frequency. The phase difference between pelvic and thoracic rotations (i.e. trunk rotation) and the total range of trunk rotation were almost linearly related to the walking speed. Healthy subjects showed a marked increase in pelvic rotation from 1 to 1.5 m s-1. Using dimensional analysis in a comparison between stroke patients and healthy subjects, invariances in the coordination of gait were found for stride length, stride frequency, pelvic rotation, and trunk rotation. Constant relations were obtained between, on the one hand, dimensionless velocity and, on the other, dimensionless stride length as well as stride frequency. Transitions were found between the velocities 0.75 and 1 m s-1 for dimensionless pelvic rotation and trunk rotation, indicating that, from this velocity range onwards, pelvic swing lengthens the stride: rotations of pelvis, thorax and trunk become tightly coordinated. On the basis of the dimensionless stride length, stride frequency, pelvic rotation and trunk rotation, deficits in the gait of stroke patients could be quantified. It is concluded that walking speed is an important control parameter, which should be used as a basic variable in the evaluation of the gait of stroke patients.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / complications
  • Female
  • Gait*
  • Hemiplegia / etiology
  • Hemiplegia / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological
  • Rotation
  • Walking