The effect of hyaluronidase and a combination of hyaluronidase with Adriamycin was investigated on several breast cancer models in vitro and in vivo. In vitro enzyme treatment (using concentrations up to 80,000 IU/1) of murine (MXT-, MXT +/-, and MXT+) and human (MCF-7, ZR-75-1 and T-47-D) breast cancer cell lines did not inhibit tumour cell proliferation (measured by a kinetic crystal violet assay) in either case. Although high-dose hyaluronidase (1.2 x 10(6) IU/kg) was ineffective, when administered peritumourally to the MXT M3.2 mammary carcinoma of the B6D2F1 mouse, it is remarkable that five "megadoses" were excellently tolerated. However, the antineoplastic activity of Adriamycin against the oestrogen-receptor-positive variant of the MXT tumour was significantly enhanced by combination with concentrations of hyaluronidase that were inactive per se, both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the enhancement of the in vivo antitumour activity was not compromised by toxic side-effects.