Translation research transforms currently available knowledge into useful measures for everyday clinical and public health practice. We review the progress in diabetes translation research and identify future challenges and opportunities in this field. Several promising interventions to optimize implementation of efficacious diabetes treatments are available. Many of these interventions, singly or in combination, need to be more formally tested in larger randomized or quasi-experimental practical trials using outcomes of special interest to patients (for example, patient satisfaction and quality of life) and policymakers (for example, cost and cost-effectiveness). The long-term outcomes (such as morbidity, mortality, quality of life, and costs) of strategies aimed at improving diabetes care must be assessed. Translation research also needs to incorporate ways of studying complex systems of care. The challenges and opportunities offered by translation research are tremendous.