The RESID Database of Protein Modifications is a comprehensive collection of annotations and structures for protein modifications and cross-links including pre-, co-, and post-translational modifications. The database provides: systematic and alternate names, atomic formulas and masses, enzymatic activities that generate the modifications, keywords, literature citations, Gene Ontology (GO) cross-references, protein sequence database feature table annotations, structure diagrams, and molecular models. This database is freely accessible on the Internet through resources provided by the European Bioinformatics Institute (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/RESID), and by the National Cancer Institute--Frederick Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (http://www.ncifcrf.gov/RESID). Each RESID Database entry presents a chemically unique modification and shows how that modification is currently annotated in the protein sequence databases, Swiss-Prot and the Protein Information Resource (PIR). The RESID Database provides a table of corresponding equivalent feature annotations that is used in the UniProt project, an international effort to combine the resources of the Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL and PIR. As an annotation tool, the RESID Database is used in standardizing and enhancing modification descriptions in the feature tables of Swiss-Prot entries. As an Internet resource, the RESID Database assists researchers in high-throughput proteomics to search monoisotopic masses and mass differences and identify known and predicted protein modifications.