Nine Alu loci (Ya5NBC5, Ya5NBC27, Ya5NBC148, Ya5NBC182, YA5NBC361, ACE, ApoA1, PV92, TPA25) were analyzed in six ethnic populations (Trans-Ural Bashkirs, Tatars-Mishars, Mordovians-Moksha, Mountain Maris, Udmurts, and Komi-Permyaks) of the Volga-Ural region and in three Central Asian populations (Uzbeks, Kazakhs, and Uigurs). All Alu insertions analyzed appeared to be polymorphic in all populations examined. The frequency of insertion varied from 0.110 in Mountain Maris at the Ya5NBC5 locus to 0.914 in Tatars at the ApoA1 locus. The data on the allele frequency distribution at nine loci point to the existence of substantial genetic diversity in the populations examined. The value of the observed heterozygosity averaged over nine Alu insertions varied from 0.326 in Mountain Maris to 0.445 in Kazakhs and Uigurs. The level of the interpopulation genetic differences for the Volga-Ural population (Fst = 0.061) was higher than for the populations of Central Asia (Fst = 0.024), Europe (Fst = 0.02), and Southeastern Asia (Fst = 0.018). The populations examined were highly differentiated both in respect of linguistic characteristics and the geographical position. The data obtained confirmed the effectiveness of the marker system used for the assessment of genetic differentiation and the relationships between the ethnic groups.