Hormone replacement therapy and obstructive airway diseases

Treat Respir Med. 2004;3(1):1-7. doi: 10.2165/00151829-200403010-00001.


Controversy exists as to the role of female reproductive hormones in asthma and COPD and, specifically, the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on these disorders. The differential incidence of asthma over the menstrual life cycle suggests an effect of female reproductive hormones on asthma; less data are available for COPD. Estrogen and progesterone have protean effects at the cellular level, consistent with potentially harmful and beneficial effects in lung disease. Large epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of development of asthma with the use of HRT but no consistent effects on COPD. Clinical and epidemiologic studies of exacerbations are limited, but suggest either a harmful effect or no effect of HRT on exacerbations of asthma and COPD. HRT appears to increase the risk of development of asthma but is not associated with the loss of lung function characteristic of COPD. Because the development of asthma is rare in postmenopausal women, the absolute increase in risk among women without asthma is modest. Physicians may wish to avoid HRT therapy in patients with difficult to control asthma and COPD. Clinical decisions to start or continue HRT among women without asthma or COPD should be based on the effects of HRT on more common diseases such as cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and osteoporosis, non-vertebral fractures and colon cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Asthma / chemically induced
  • Asthma / physiopathology*
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects*
  • Estrogens / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Progesterone / physiology*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / chemically induced
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / physiopathology*


  • Estrogens
  • Progesterone