Background: The treatment of Wilms Tumor is integrated into clinical trials since the 1970's. In contrast to the National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTSG) the SIOP trials and studies largely focus on the issue of preoperative therapy to facilitate surgery of a shrunken tumor and to treat metastasis as early as possible.
Patients and methods: In the SIOP 93-01/GPOH trial and study 1 020 patients with a newly diagnosed renal tumor were registered. 847 of them had a histological proven Wilms Tumor, of whom 637 were unilateral localized, and 173 tumors had an other histology [40 congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN), 51 clear cell sarcoma (CCSK), 24 rhabdoid tumor (RTK) and 58 other tumors]. Preoperative chemotherapy in benign tumors was given to 1.3 % of the patients. The main objective of the trial was the randomized question, if the postoperative two drug chemotherapy for stage I in intermediate risk or anaplasia can be reduced from conventional 3 courses to an experimental 1 course without loss of efficacy.
Results: 519 patients with unilateral nonmetastatic Wilms did receive preoperative chemotherapy. The histology in this group of patients was of intermediate risk in 469 (90 %) patients, 14 (3 %) tumors were low risk and 36 (7 %) high risk. The stage distribution of the tumors was stage I in 315 (61 %), stage II N- in 126 (24 %), stage II N+ in 25 (5 %) and stage III in 36 (7 %) patients. In 17 (3 %) patients the tumor stage remained unclear. Tumor volume was measured in 487 patients before and in 402 after preoperative chemotherapy. The median tumor volume did shrink from 353 to 126 ml. The amount of volume reduction depends on the histological subtype. The event free survival (EFS) after 5 years was 91 % for all patients with unilateral Wilms tumor without distant metastasis. Randomisation was done in 43.7 % for stage I patients and there was no difference in EFS for both treatment arms (90 versus 91 %). The EFS is identical for patients with stage I and II N- (0.92), as well as for stage II N+ and III (0.82). The tumor volume after chemotherapy is a prognostic factor for intermediate risk tumors with the exception of epithelial and stromal predominant tumors. These two subtypes often present as large tumors, they do not shrink during preoperative chemotherapy but they still have an excellent prognosis. On the other hand the prognosis of patients with blastemal predominant subtype after preoperative chemotherapy is worse than in any other patient group of intermediate risk tumors. There are less blastemal predominant tumors compared to primary surgery, but they are chemotherapeutic resistant selected by the preoperative chemotherapy.
Conclusion: Patients with unilateral Wilms tumor without metastasis have an excellent prognosis. The post-operative chemotherapy in stage I can be reduced to 4 weeks without worsening treatment outcome. The reduction of the tumor volume could be identified as a helpful marker for stratification of post-operative treatment. Post-chemotherapy blastemal predominant subtype of Wilms tumor has to be classified as high risk tumor. Focal anaplasia has a better prognosis than diffuse anaplasia and will be classified as intermediate risk tumor.