Promoting appropriate antibiotic use for pediatric patients: a social ecological framework

Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2004 Jan;15(1):41-51. doi: 10.1053/j.spid.2004.01.004.


During the 1990s, the number of prescriptions for antibiotics for children and adolescents finally decreased after more than a decade of alarming increases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and many other groups have designed and implemented interventions to promote appropriate prescribing of antibiotics, and these efforts appear to have contributed to recent decreases in rates of such prescribing. In this article, we describe the various types of interventions that the CDC and others are using to encourage appropriate use of antibiotics. A social ecological framework is used to describe the various factors contributing to prescribing and using antibiotics, as well as the interventions used for targeting these factors. Although most efforts promoting appropriate use of antibiotics have focused on reducing such use for viral infections, future efforts also should include a focus on ensuring the use of targeted agents when antibiotics are indicated.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Drug Prescriptions
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Drug Utilization*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infections / drug therapy*
  • Otitis Media / drug therapy
  • Pediatrics
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians'
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / drug therapy


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents