Occupational and environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2002 Jun;8(5):297-309. doi: 10.1016/s1353-8020(01)00054-2.


The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains obscure. Current research suggests that a variety of occupational and environmental risk factors may be linked to PD. This paper provides an overview of major occupational and environmental factors that have been associated with the development of PD and tries to assess current thinking about these factors and their possible mechanisms of operation. While clear links to rural living, dietary factors, exposure to metals, head injury, and exposure to infectious diseases during childhood have not been established, there is general agreement that smoking and exposure to pesticides affect the probability of developing PD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Environmental Exposure
  • Humans
  • Occupational Exposure
  • Parkinson Disease / epidemiology*
  • Parkinson Disease / etiology*
  • Risk Factors