Symptom overlap for malaria and pneumonia--policy implications for home management strategies

Acta Trop. 2004 Apr;90(2):211-4. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2003.11.013.


Malaria and pneumonia are the leading causes of child death in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) at health facilities is presumptive: fever for malaria, and cough/difficult breathing with fast breathing for pneumonia. Of 3671 Ugandan under-fives at 14 health centres, 30% had symptoms compatible both with malaria and pneumonia, necessitating dual treatment. Of 2944 "malaria" cases, 37% also had "pneumonia". The Global Fund and Roll Back Malaria are now supporting home management of malaria strategies across SSA. To adequately treat the sick child, these community strategies need to address the malaria-pneumonia symptom overlap and manage both conditions.

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Cough / etiology
  • Fever / etiology
  • Home Care Services*
  • Humans
  • Hyperventilation / etiology
  • Infant
  • Malaria / complications
  • Malaria / epidemiology*
  • Malaria / physiopathology
  • Malaria / therapy*
  • Pneumonia / complications
  • Pneumonia / epidemiology*
  • Pneumonia / physiopathology
  • Pneumonia / therapy*
  • Prevalence
  • Uganda / epidemiology