Advances in MR imaging have improved the visualization of normal and pathologic peripheral nerve structures in various clinical settings. Peripheral nerve imaging has the potential to dramatically change the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral nerve pathology and lead to an improved understanding of peripheral nerve pathophysiology. Currently, MR imaging serves as a problem-solving tool when additional anatomic information is needed to clarify ambiguous electrodiagnostic and clinical examinations. The next major advance in MR imaging of peripheral nerves will likely be the transition from anatomic to physiologic imaging with higher resolution as better phased-array surface coils and higher-field-strength magnets become available. Finally, MR neurography should remain complementary to the clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies in the evaluation of peripheral nerve disorders.