TFF peptides are involved in mucosal maintenance and repair through motogenic and antiapoptotic activities. These peptides are overexpressed during inflammatory processes and cancer progression. They also function as scatter factors, proinvasive and angiogenic agents. Such a divergence is related to the pathophysiological state of tissues submitted to persistent aggressive situations during digestive processes in the normal gastrointestinal tract, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. In agreement with this model, TFF peptides are connected with multiple oncogenic pathways. As a consequence, the TFF signaling pathways may serve as potential targets in the control of chronic inflammation and progression of human solid tumors.