The purpose of this study was to determine whether cow milk-specific antibody responses correlated with the development of clinical tolerance in cow milk-allergic children. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges were performed annually in 29 patients with cow milk allergy. Clinical reactivity was lost in 11 (38%) of 29 patients. The median age for all patients at the time of diagnosis by these food challenges was 3 years; more than 80% of patients in each group had atopic dermatitis as part of their presenting symptoms. Casein-specific and beta-lactoglobulin-specific IgE, IgG, IgG1, and IgG4 antibody concentrations were analyzed in all patients at regular intervals. In the patients becoming clinically tolerant to cow milk, the IgE-specific antibody concentrations and IgE/IgG-specific ratios for both milk proteins were lower initially and decreased significantly with time, in comparison with those in the group who retained clinical sensitivity. The concentrations of IgG1- and IgG4-specific antibody to casein and the IgE/IgG1 and IgE/IgG4 ratios for both casein and beta-lactoglobulin were significantly less in the patients losing clinical reactivity. No differences in the IgG-specific concentrations were observed in either group at any of the evaluation times noted above. Monitoring similar casein-specific and beta-lactoglobulin-specific IgE concentrations and IgE/IgG ratios may help predict which patients will ultimately lose their clinical reactivity to cow milk.