With utilization of the techniques discussed in this review, patients with short bowel syndrome can be expected to live prolonged lives, even after fairly massive resection. Advances in parenteral and home parenteral nutrition and changes in the long-term management of chronic complications have altered the lifestyles of patients with short bowel syndrome. Intestinal transplantation may become an effective mode of therapy within a short period of time. Many surgeons faced with the possibility of leaving a child with only 10-15 cm of bowel in the past have closed the abdomen with the dead bowel and let the child die. These recent advances raise interesting ethical dilemmas. Research into the process of intestinal adaptation as well as greater experience with intestinal transplantation and other modes of therapy may further improve prognosis.