The aim of glaucoma therapy is to preserve vision by reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). Following recent National Eye Institute sponsored studies, it is becoming increasingly apparent that every mmHg of extra IOP lowering counts. Bimatoprost is the newest and most effective addition to the physician's armamentarium of ocular hypotensive drugs. Direct clinical comparisons have demonstrated that it is more efficacious than the prostaglandin (PG) FP receptor agonist prodrugs, latanoprost and travoprost, as well as a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, timolol, alone or in fixed combination with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, dorzolamide. Moreover, patients that are refractory to latanoprost therapy may be successfully treated with bimatoprost. Such evidence provides support, at the clinical level, for the contention that bimatoprost is pharmacologically distinct from PG FP receptor agonist prodrugs. Bimatoprost is a structural analog of PGF2alpha-ethanolamide (prostamide F2alpha), which is formed from the endocannabinoid anandamide by a biosynthetic pathway involving cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Their pharmacology is remarkably similar, such that bimatoprost may be regarded as a prostamide mimetic. The target receptor for bimatoprost and the prostamides appears unique and unrelated to PG- and endocannabinoid-sensitive receptors. Extensive ocular distribution/metabolism studies in non-human primates demonstrate that bimatoprost is not a prodrug, it remains essentially intact. Its profound ocular hypotensive effects may, therefore, be attributed to its prostamide-mimetic properties.