COX-2 inhibitors and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in genitourinary cancer

Semin Oncol. 2004 Apr;31(2 Suppl 7):36-44. doi: 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2004.03.044.


Selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-inhibiting and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) show promise for preventing and treating bladder and prostate cancers. In contrast to the strong NSAID epidemiology in colorectal cancer, the epidemiologic data on NSAIDs and genitourinary (GU) cancers are limited and mixed. However, a substantial body of preclinical in vitro and in vivo animal model data shows consistent NSAID activity in treating, and in some cases preventing, GU cancers and begins to address the mechanisms behind this activity (eg, involving Akt and ERK2 in the prostate). Many preclinical and clinical NSAID studies currently under way are helping to resolve the best type (selective or nonselective COX inhibitors or non-COX inhibitors), dose and duration of NSAID treatment for prevention in the GU setting. Future studies likely will focus on clarifying the NSAID mechanisms behind and developing NSAID combinations for both treating and preventing GU cancers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use*
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / enzymology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / prevention & control


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • Isoenzymes
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • PTGS2 protein, human
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases