Risk behaviours and benign prostatic hyperplasia

BJU Int. 2004 Jun;93(9):1241-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2004.04839.x.


Objective: To identify risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Subjects and methods: Medical history data, including reported urological conditions and treatments, and risk factor data were collected from 34 694 participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate methods for the early detection of cancer.

Results: Asian men had the lowest risks (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval) for nocturia (0.7, 0.5-0.9), physician-diagnosed BPH (0.3, 0.2-0.5) and transurethral prostatectomy (TURP, 0.2, 0.1-0.6), while risks for Whites and Blacks were similar for most measures of BPH. Greater alcohol intake was associated with decreased nocturia (P trend = 0.002), BPH (P trend < 0.001) and TURP (P trend < 0.001). Current tobacco use was associated with decreased nocturia (0.8, 0.7-0.9), BPH (0.7, 0.6-0.8) and TURP (0.6, 0.4-0.8) but dose-response patterns were weak.

Conclusion: Asian-Americans have the lowest risk of clinical BPH. Alcohol and possibly cigarettes are related to a lower risk for BPH.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects
  • Black People / ethnology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / ethnology
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / etiology*
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / surgery
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Transurethral Resection of Prostate / methods
  • Urination Disorders / etiology
  • White People / ethnology


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal