Homer/Vesl proteins and their roles in CNS neurons

Mol Neurobiol. 2004 Jun;29(3):213-27. doi: 10.1385/MN:29:3:213.


Since their initial discovery in 1997, Homer/Vesl proteins have become increasingly investigated as putative regulators of receptor and ion-channel function in the central nervous system. Within a relatively brief period, numerous research reports have described manifold effects of Homer proteins, including the modulation of the trafficking of type I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), axonal pathfinding, mGluR coupling to calcium and potassium channels, agonist-independent mGluR activity, ryanodine receptor regulation, locomotor activity, and behavioral plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the induction, expression, and structure of the various forms of Homer proteins, as well as their roles in neuronal function. In addition, we provide an outlook on novel developments with regard to the involvement of Homer-1a in hippocampal synaptic function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium Channels / metabolism
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism*
  • Homer Scaffolding Proteins
  • Humans
  • Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors
  • Neuronal Plasticity / physiology
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism*
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary / physiology
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism
  • Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate / metabolism*
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel / metabolism
  • Synaptic Membranes / physiology


  • Calcium Channels
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Homer Scaffolding Proteins
  • ITPR1 protein, human
  • Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors
  • Neuropeptides
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel