Catalytic and structural contributions for glutathione-binding residues in a Delta class glutathione S-transferase

Biochem J. 2004 Sep 1;382(Pt 2):751-7. doi: 10.1042/BJ20040697.


Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are dimeric proteins that play a major role in cellular detoxification. The GSTs in mosquito Anopheles dirus species B, an important malaria vector in South East Asia, are of interest because they can play an important role in insecticide resistance. In the present study, we characterized the Anopheles dirus (Ad)GST D3-3 which is an alternatively spliced product of the adgst1AS1 gene. The data from the crystal structure of GST D3-3 shows that Ile-52, Glu-64, Ser-65, Arg-66 and Met-101 interact directly with glutathione. To study the active-site function of these residues, alanine substitution site-directed mutagenesis was performed resulting in five mutants: I52A (Ile-52-->Ala), E64A, S65A, R66A and M101A. Interestingly, the E64A mutant was expressed in Escherichia coli in inclusion bodies, suggesting that this residue is involved with the tertiary structure or folding property of this enzyme. However, the I52A, S65A, R66A and M101A mutants were purified by glutathione affinity chromatography and the enzyme activity characterized. On the basis of steady-state kinetics, difference spectroscopy, unfolding and refolding studies, it was concluded that these residues: (1) contribute to the affinity of the GSH-binding site ('G-site') for GSH, (2) influence GSH thiol ionization, (3) participate in kcat regulation by affecting the rate-limiting step of the reaction, and in the case of Ile-52 and Arg-66, influenced structural integrity and/or folding of the enzyme. The structural perturbations from these mutants are probably transmitted to the hydrophobic-substrate-binding site ('H-site') through changes in active site topology or through effects on GSH orientation. Therefore these active site residues appear to contribute to various steps in the catalytic mechanism, as well as having an influence on the packing of the protein.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Amino Acids / physiology
  • Animals
  • Anopheles / enzymology
  • Binding Sites / physiology
  • Catalysis
  • Catalytic Domain
  • Enzyme Stability / physiology
  • Glutathione / metabolism*
  • Glutathione Transferase / biosynthesis
  • Glutathione Transferase / chemistry*
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Glutathione Transferase / physiology
  • Hot Temperature
  • Insect Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Insect Proteins / chemistry
  • Insect Proteins / metabolism
  • Insect Proteins / physiology
  • Kinetics
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation / physiology
  • Protein Binding / physiology
  • Protein Folding
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Substrate Specificity / physiology


  • Amino Acids
  • Insect Proteins
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Glutathione