Dietary red pepper suppresses energy intake and modifies macronutrient intake. We have investigated whether a stimulus in the mouth and the sensation of spiciness are necessary for red pepper-induced changes in energy and macronutrient intake in human volunteers. In a preliminary test, sixteen Japanese male volunteers tasted samples of a soup with graded doses of red pepper in order to define a moderate and a maximum tolerable (strong) dose of red pepper. On the day of the experiment, a standardised breakfast was given to the volunteers. At lunchtime, the subjects ingested one of four experimental soups containing either a placebo, a moderate or a strong dose of red pepper plus placebo capsules, or a placebo soup plus capsules delivering a strong dose of red pepper. The rest of the meal was given ad libitum to all subjects. The amount of food, protein and carbohydrate ingested was similar for all conditions. Energy and fat intake were similar after the ingestion of the moderate soup compared with placebo. However, the strong soup significantly lowered fat intake compared with placebo (P=0.043), and ingestion of strong capsules also tended to suppress it (P=0.080). Moreover, energy intake after strong soup and capsules tended to be lower than placebo (P=0.089 and 0.076, respectively). The present results indicate that the maximum tolerable dose is necessary to have a suppressive effect of red pepper on fat intake. The main site of the action of red pepper is not in the mouth.