To investigate whether the Model-flow method, by simulating the aortic input impedance model from a noninvasive monitoring of arterial blood pressure, reflected a reliable measure of cardiac output (CO) during postural change and whole-body exercise occurring in daily life, we compared the Modelflow-estimated CO with a simultaneous reference determined by the pulse dye-densitometry. Nine healthy volunteers performed postural change from supine to upright and dynamic stepping exercise. The Modelflow-estimated CO decreased to 4.8 +/- 0.5 l/min, from 5.8 +/- 0.6 l/min, during the postural change and increased to 12.8 +/- 1.3 l/min during a stepping exercise, returning to 5.1 +/- 0.4 l/min at 5 min after exercise. When comparing the pooled data of CO during resting and following exercise between the Modelflow and pulse dye-densitometry, we found that the average CO did not differ between the two estimates and that there was a significant correlation between them; the slope of the linear regression line corresponded to approximately 1.0. Although such linear relationship was also observed in an individual subject, the slope of the regression line varied from 0.737 to 1.588 among the subjects. The calibration of the Modelflow-estimated CO with the dye-densitometry value at supine or upright improved a correlation between the two estimates. Thus it is likely that the noninvasive Modelflow simulation from arterial blood pressure can provide a reliable estimation of group-average cardiac output during postural change and stepping exercise occurring in daily life. It will be recommended for a more accurate estimation of cardiac output in a given subject to calibrate the Modelflow data with an independent measure.