Much evidence indicates that prefrontal cortex plays an important role in long-term recognition memory processes. Here, we report primate prefrontal neuronal responses carrying information necessary for long-term visual recognition memory. The responses of many neurons signaled stimulus familiarity even when the period over which stimuli had to be remembered extended to 24 hr. Such responses occurred frequently in ventromedial, orbitofrontal, and anterior cingulate but not dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal information processing, as indicated by the response latencies, started after that in inferior temporal cortex and might be related to retrieval processes, as responses were typically larger for familiar than for novel stimuli.