Pharmacodynamic Comparisons of Antimicrobials Against Nosocomial Isolates of Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Acinetobacter Baumannii and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa From the MYSTIC Surveillance Program: The OPTAMA Program, South America 2002

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004 Jun;49(2):109-16. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2004.03.003.

Abstract

The OPTAMA (Optimizing Pharmacodynamic Target Attainment using the MYSTIC [Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection] Antibiogram) Program provides insight into the appropriate antibiotic options for empiric therapy for common nosocomial pathogens. In this report, South America is represented by Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela. A 5000-subject Monte Carlo Simulation estimated pharmacodynamic target attainment for meropenem, imipenem, ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pharmacokinetic parameter variability was derived from existing healthy volunteer data, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data came from the 2002 MYSTIC program. Piperacillin/tazobactam and ciprofloxacin displayed the lowest target attainment against all bacterial species (14% to 24% for A. baumannii, 26% to 37% for P. aeruginosa, and 48% to 66% for the Enterobacteriaceae). Overall, the carbapenems had the highest probabilities of attainment against the Enterobacteriaceae (98% to 100%) and A. baumannii (73% to 74%), whereas cefepime obtained the greatest target attainment against P. aeruginosa (65%). Because no single regimen had high target attainment against A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, the use of combination therapy to treat these pathogens in South America may be justified. Because of the lack of agreement with percent susceptibility for certain antimicrobial regimens, the use of pharmacodynamic target attainment may be a more accurate predictor of microbiologic success.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Acinetobacter baumannii / drug effects*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Brazil
  • Colombia
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Cross Infection / drug therapy
  • Cross Infection / microbiology
  • Data Collection
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Escherichia coli / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / drug effects*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Peru
  • Probability
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • South America
  • Venezuela

Substances

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents