Exogenous treatment of zebrafish embryos with retinoic acid induces a duplication of the retinas during development. These effects occur only when retinoic acid is applied within a 2-hr period prior to and during the initial formation of the optic primordia, and they are concentration-dependent. Light microscopic examination reveals that the second retina derives from cells in the ventral region of the developing eyecup that normally become pigment epithelial cells. Two distinct ganglion cell fields are usually observed in eyes with duplicated retinas. Bundles of axons from each ganglion cell field join as they leave the eye and innervate the contralateral tectum.