We hypothesized that rapid presentation may be a general feature of tuberculosis (TB) associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that limits the impact of HIV on the point prevalence of TB. To investigate this, we performed a cross-sectional HIV and TB disease survey with retrospective and prospective follow-up. HIV prevalence among 1,773 systematically recruited miners was 27%. TB incidence was much more strongly HIV associated (incidence rate ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-8.6) than the point prevalence of undiagnosed TB disease (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.9-3.3). For smear-positive TB, 7 of 9 (78%) prevalent cases were HIV negative, and point prevalence was nonsignificantly lower in miners who were HIV positive (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.1-4.2). The calculated mean duration of smear positivity before diagnosis (point prevalence/incidence) was substantially shorter for HIV-positive than HIV-negative TB patients (0.17 and 1.15 years, respectively; ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.00-0.73). HIV has considerably less impact on the point prevalence of TB disease than on TB incidence, probably because rapid disease progression increases presentation and case-finding rates. The difference in mean duration of smear positivity was particularly marked and, if generalizable, will have major implications for TB control prospects in high HIV prevalence areas.