Noninvasive biomonitoring approaches to determine dosimetry and risk following acute chemical exposure: analysis of lead or organophosphate insecticide in saliva

J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2004;67(8-10):635-50. doi: 10.1080/15287390490428035.


There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad range of metals and chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Noninvasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants, including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of noninvasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square-wave anodic stripping voltametry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1-2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for noninvasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these noninvasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for evaluating acute exposure and health risk.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Hazardous Substances / pharmacokinetics
  • Hazardous Substances / toxicity*
  • Insecticides / pharmacokinetics
  • Insecticides / toxicity*
  • Organometallic Compounds / pharmacokinetics
  • Organometallic Compounds / toxicity*
  • Organophosphorus Compounds*
  • Rats
  • Saliva / chemistry*
  • Saliva / metabolism


  • Hazardous Substances
  • Insecticides
  • Organometallic Compounds
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • lead acetate