Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant brain tumor that arises in the cerebellum of children. Activation of the Sonic hedgehog/Patched (Shh/Ptc) signaling pathway in neural progenitor cells of the cerebellum induces MBs in mice. The incomplete penetrance of tumor formation in mice, coupled with the low frequency of mutations in Shh/Ptc pathway genes in human tumors, suggests that other signaling molecules cooperate with Shh to enhance MB formation. We modeled the ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling to induce MB using the RCAS/tv-a system, which allows postnatal gene transfer and expression in a cell-type-specific manner. We used RCAS retroviral vectors to target expression of Shh, IGF2, and activated Akt to nestin-expressing neural progenitors in the cerebella of newborn mice. The incidence of Shh-induced tumor formation (15%) was enhanced by coexpression with IGF2 (39%) and Akt (48%). Neither IGF2 nor Akt caused tumors when expressed independently. The induced tumors showed upregulated expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 and phosphorylated forms of IGF1 receptor and Akt, mimicking activated IGF signaling found in human MBs. These results indicate that combined activation of the Shh/Ptc and IGF signaling pathways is an important mechanism in MB pathogenesis.