A 2-day workshop on "Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetics (PBPK) in Drug Development and Regulatory Science" came to a successful conclusion on May 30, 2002, in Washington, DC. More than 120 international participants from the environmental and predominantly pharmaceutical industries, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and universities attended this workshop, organized by the Center for Drug Development Science, Georgetown University, Washington, DC. The first of its kind specifically devoted to the subject, this intensive workshop, comprising 7 plenary presentations and 10 breakout sessions addressed 2 major objectives: (1) to "define demonstrated and potential contributions of PBPK in drug development and regulatory science," and (2) to "assess current PBPK methodologies with the identification of their limitations and outstanding issues." This report summarizes the presentations and recommendations that emerged from the workshop, while providing key references, software, and PBPK data sources in the appendices. The first day was initially devoted to presentations setting the stage and providing demonstrated applications to date. This was followed by breakout sessions that considered further opportunities and limitations, and which extended into Day 2 to deal with developments in methodologies and tools. Although the primary emphasis was on pharmacokinetics, consideration was also given to its integration specifically with mechanism-based pharmacodynamics.