This study examined caregiver perceptions of mental health problems and counseling needs in low-income children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Interviewers collected data from 257 caregivers of CSHCN (61% males; 60% African American; Mean age = 8.4 years) attending six Midwestern inner-city health clinics. Measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and an investigator-designed questionnaire. CBCL T-scores indicated that 38% of CSHCN had a behavioral or mental health problem, but only 26% of caregivers perceived the need for treatment or counseling. CSHCN should be assessed and referred appropriately for behavioral and mental health problems during routine health care visits.