Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha was identified 15 years ago as the first of now four members of the MIP-1 CC chemokine subfamily. These proteins termed CCL3 (MIP-1alpha), CCL4 (MIP-1beta), CCL9/10 (MIP-1delta), and CCL15 (MIP-1gamma) according to the revised nomenclature for chemokines are produced by many cells, particularly macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. MIP-1 proteins, which act via G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors (CCR1, 3, 5), e.g. expressed by lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages (MPhi), are best known for their chemotactic and proinflammatory effects but can also promote homoeostasis. The encouraging results of preclinical studies in murine models of inflammation, i.e. asthma, arthritis, or multiple sclerosis, have led to the development of potent CCR3 and 5 antagonists, some of which are currently being tested in first clinical trials.