Macrophage inflammatory protein-1

Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Oct;36(10):1882-6. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2003.10.019.


Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha was identified 15 years ago as the first of now four members of the MIP-1 CC chemokine subfamily. These proteins termed CCL3 (MIP-1alpha), CCL4 (MIP-1beta), CCL9/10 (MIP-1delta), and CCL15 (MIP-1gamma) according to the revised nomenclature for chemokines are produced by many cells, particularly macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. MIP-1 proteins, which act via G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors (CCR1, 3, 5), e.g. expressed by lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages (MPhi), are best known for their chemotactic and proinflammatory effects but can also promote homoeostasis. The encouraging results of preclinical studies in murine models of inflammation, i.e. asthma, arthritis, or multiple sclerosis, have led to the development of potent CCR3 and 5 antagonists, some of which are currently being tested in first clinical trials.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Disease
  • Humans
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / chemistry
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data


  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins