Milk Consumption Is a Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies

Nutr Cancer. 2004;48(1):22-7. doi: 10.1207/s15327914nc4801_4.

Abstract

Prostate cancer has become the most common cancer among men in the United States. Although milk consumption is considered to be a risk factor in some epidemiological studies, the results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis method was conducted to estimate the combined odds ratio (OR) between milk consumption and prostate cancer from case-control studies published between 1984 and 2003 using commercial software (comprehensive meta-analysis). The combined OR was 1.68 (95% confidence interval = 1.34-2.12) in the 11 published case-control studies. The combined OR varied little by study stratification. Additionally, we evaluated the possible risk factors in milk for prostate cancer. In conclusion, we found a positive association between milk consumption and prostate cancer. The underlying mechanisms, including fat, calcium, hormones, and other factors, should be investigated further.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Milk / adverse effects*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology
  • Risk Factors