1: S-3-(4-acetylamino-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide (also known as S-4) is a non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator demonstrating tissue-selective androgenic and anabolic effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the systemic pharmacokinetics, elimination and oral bioavailability of S-4 in rats. 2: Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 g were randomly assigned to one of seven treatment groups. Intravenous doses of 0.5, 1, 10, and 30 mg kg(-1) were given via a jugular catheter. Oral doses of 1, 10 and 30 mg kg(-1) were administered via gavage. Plasma concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography or by a high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. 3: Clearances ranged between 1.0 and 2.1 ml min(-1) kg(-1) and varied with dose. The volume of distribution was approximately 0.448 l kg(-1) in all treatment groups. Oral bioavailability was also dose dependent, with the lower doses showing complete oral bioavailability. The half-life of S-4 over the dose range tested was between 2.6 and 5.3 h. 4: It was demonstrated that S-4 is rapidly absorbed, slowly cleared, and has a moderate volume of distribution in rats. The pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of S-4 indicate that it is an excellent candidate for clinical development.
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