L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is a major complication of L-DOPA pharmacotherapy in Parkinson's disease, and is thought to depend on abnormal cell signaling in the basal ganglia. In this study, we have addressed the possibility to model L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the mouse at both the behavioral and the molecular level. C57BL/6 mice sustained unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) either in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or in the sensorimotor part of the striatum. Both types of lesion produced a similar degree of forelimb akinesia on the contralateral side of the body. The lowest dose of L-DOPA that could significantly relieve this akinetic deficit (i.e., 6 mg/kg) did not differ between MFB and intrastriatal lesions. The L-DOPA threshold dose for the induction of dyskinesia did however differ between the two lesion types. A daily dose of 6 mg/kg L-DOPA caused MFB lesioned mice to develop abnormal movements affecting orofacial, trunk, and forelimb muscles on the side contralateral to the lesion, whereas a daily dose of 18 mg/kg was required to produce comparable dyskinetic effects in the intrastriatally lesioned animals. The development of abnormal movements was accompanied by a striatal induction of DeltaFosB-like proteins and prodynorphin mRNA, that is, molecular markers that are associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in both rats and nonhuman primates. We conclude that 6-OHDA lesioned mice exhibit behavioral and cellular features of akinesia and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia that are similar to those previously characterized in rats. The mouse model of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia will provide a useful tool to study the molecular determinants of this movement disorder in transgenic mice strains.