We report seven cases of cerebral or disseminated toxoplasmosis that occurred following bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and review the other 24 cases described in the literature. For all the cases, toxoplasmosis occurred within 6 months of BMT, with the highest incidence in the second and third months. Twenty-four of 26 recipients tested serologically before BMT were positive for Toxoplasma gondii, a finding that supports the view that such cases result from reactivation of latent infection. At the onset of clinical symptoms, IgG antibody titers were unchanged or decreased in 23 of 25 documented cases, and IgM antibodies were detected in two cases. Antemortem diagnosis was made in 16 cases and was based on the response to specific therapy in six cases and/or the demonstration of the parasite in body fluids or tissues in 10 cases. Autopsy was performed in 19 cases and revealed that infection was not restricted to the brain but either involved lung or heart tissue or was disseminated in 14 cases.