High AST/ALT ratio may indicate advanced alcoholic liver disease rather than heavy drinking

Alcohol Alcohol. Jul-Aug 2004;39(4):336-9. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agh074.

Abstract

Aims: To assess the place of AST/ALT ratio (the ratio of serum aspartate aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase) as a diagnostic marker in medical populations.

Methods: Laboratory tests were viewed retrospectively in three groups of patients: 313 patients with alcohol dependence, consecutively admitted to an alcohol and drug treatment unit for treatment of withdrawal (W) symptoms, 78 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence consecutively admitted to surgical or medical wards with various primary somatic (S) diagnoses (e.g. respiratory, gastrointestinal and metabolic), and 48 consecutive patients with alcohol abuse or dependence admitted to surgical or medical wards for treatment of alcohol-related liver cirrhosis and its complications (C). Comparison between groups was made of the pattern of patients' AST/ALT ratios using, for Groups S and C, laboratory data from patients' first admission for their condition.

Results: There was a significant rise in the AST/ALT ratio from the W to the S patients, and from the S to the C patients. In the W group, the ratio was < or = 1.0 in 64% of the patients, and only exceptionally > or = 2. In the C group, 69% had a ratio > or = 2, and 8% a ratio < or = 1.0. The mean ratio was midway in the S group. In the C group, there was a progressive decline in aspartate (AST/ALT) ratios after admission.

Conclusions: Most patients with high alcohol consumption but without severe liver disease do not have an AST/ALT ratio above 1. High AST/ALT ratio suggests advanced alcoholic liver disease.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alanine Transaminase / blood*
  • Alcohol Drinking / blood*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / diagnosis
  • Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / enzymology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies

Substances

  • Aspartate Aminotransferases
  • Alanine Transaminase