Calprotectin - a pleiotropic molecule in acute and chronic inflammation

Physiol Res. 2004;53(3):245-53.


Calprotectin (MRP8/14, S100A8/S100A9, 27E10 antigen) is a heterodimer of two calcium-binding proteins present in the cytoplasm of neutrophils and expressed on the membrane of monocytes. Upon neutrophil activation or endothelial adhesion of monocytes, calprotectin is released and may be detected in serum or body fluids as potentially useful clinical inflammatory marker. The soluble form of calprotectin provides both bacteriostatic and cytokine-like effects in the local environment. When calprotectin metabolism is affected on a systemic level, the zinc-binding properties of protein may induce severe dysregulation of zinc homeostasis with severe clinical symptoms. The distribution of membrane form of calprotectin is restricted to monocytes and immature macrophages and the presence of calprotectin-positive infiltrating cells reflects the influx of mononuclear phagocytes to the site of inflammation. Calprotectin expression and release seems to be of particular importance in immune and immunopathological reactions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Chronic Disease
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Homeostasis / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / immunology
  • Immunologic Factors / metabolism
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inflammation / metabolism*
  • Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex / chemistry
  • Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex / immunology*
  • Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex / metabolism*
  • Organ Specificity
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Biomarkers
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex