Cancer of the esophagus and gastric cardia: recent advances

Dis Esophagus. 2004;17(1):10-26. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2050.2004.00371.x.


Esophageal cancer and cancer of the gastric cardia, in particular adenocarcinomas, have shown a rapid and largely unexplained increase in incidence in many developed countries around the world. These diseases have a poor prognosis and current therapies have a modest impact on survival. This review presents recent advances in the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, staging, prevention and treatment of resectable and advanced disease. Although significant progress has been made in these areas of research and patient management over the past years, prognosis for most patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer or cancer of the gastric cardia remains poor. New diagnostic procedures, improved surgical procedures, combined treatment modalities and new treatment modalities are being evaluated and may be expected to contribute to improved patient outcomes and better palliation of symptoms in the future.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / mortality
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control
  • Adenocarcinoma / surgery
  • Anastomosis, Surgical
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy*
  • Cardia / pathology*
  • Cardia / surgery
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Esophagectomy / methods
  • Female
  • Gastrectomy / methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Palliative Care / methods
  • Prognosis
  • Quality of Life
  • Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Risk Assessment
  • Stomach Neoplasms / mortality
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome